Top 10 Famous Historical Events in UK

Historical Events in UK

Historical events-History is history because it’s responsible for having changed the most basics of living of mankind. Can you imagine a day without using the telephone? Does not the discovery of that too have its grounds in deep rooted history? Matters so trivial are everyday affairs.

Great fire of London

great fire of london

On September 2, 1666, night the fire began on Pudding Lane, in the bake shop of Thomas Farynor, who is the baker to King Charles II. At one o’clock in the morning, a servant woke to find the house aflame, and the baker and his family escaped.

The strong wind blew that night sent sparks catch fire to the Church of St. Margaret and spread to Thomas Street with the riverside warehouses which was fully made of wood and pitch construction. The unit of people poured the buckets of water from the river over the flames. By 8o’clock in the morning, the fire had spread halfway across London Bridge. Most of the city got damage.

Lord Mayor Bludworth, worrying about the cost of rebuilding. The Trained Bands of London were called in to demolish houses by gunpowder, but remains too much to be cleared. The fire powerfully unchecked for another three days, until it stayed near Temple Church. At that time the Duke of York (later King James II) had the presence of mind to order the Paper House demolished to create a fire break, and the fire finally died down.
The loss of life was less but the property loss was deeply shocked. Some 430 acres, as much as 80% of the city proper was destroyed, Thousands of citizens found themselves homeless and financially ruined. The Great Fire, and the fire of 1676, which destroyed over 600 houses south of the river, changed the face of London forever. The one positive effect of the Great Fire of London was that the plague, which had carry off London since 1665, valuable greatly, due to the mass death of the plague-carrying rats powerfully.

Charles II appointed six Commissioners to redesign the city. The plan provided for wider streets and buildings of brick, rather than timber. By 1671, 9000 houses and public buildings had been completed. Sir Christopher Wren was commissioned to design and oversee the construction of nearly 50 churches, not least of them a new St. Paul’s Cathedral, construction of which began in 1675. The King also had Wren design a monument to the Great Fire, which stands still today at the site of the bakery which started it all, on a street now named Monument Street.

 

Museum of London

meseum of london

The Victoria and Albert Museum’s collections span two thousand years of art in virtually every medium, from many parts of the world, and visitors to the museum encounter a treasure house of amazing and beautiful objects. The story of the V&A’s foundation helps to explain its astonishing richness and diversity.

The Museum was established in 1852, following the enormous success of the Great Exhibition the previous year. Its founding principle was to make works of art available to all, to educate working people and to inspire British designers and manufacturers. Profits from the Exhibition were used to establish the Museum of Manufactures, as it was initially known, and exhibits were purchased to form the basis of its collections.

The Museum moved to its present site in 1857 and was renamed the South Kensington Museum. Its collections expanded rapidly as it set out to acquire the best examples of metalwork, furniture, textiles and all other forms of decorative art from all periods. It also acquired fine art – paintings, drawings, prints and sculpture – in order to tell a more complete history of art and design.

In 1899, Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone of a new building designed to give the Museum a grand facade and main entrance. To mark the occasion, it was renamed the Victoria and Albert Museum, in memory of the enthusiastic support Prince Albert had given to its foundation. Throughout the 20th century, the collections continued to grow. While expanding its historical collections, the V&A also maintained its acquisition of contemporary objects, starting with a collection of Art Nouveau furniture in 1900.

Although the V&A’s collections are international in their scope, they contain many particularly important British works – especially British silver, ceramics, textiles and furniture. The British Galleries are designed to give visitors from this country and from around the world a new insight into the history of Britain by bringing us closer to the thoughts and lives of key people in an influential culture.

The Victoria and Albert Museum also offers visitors the chance to experience at first hand the splendour of the arts of Asia. Visitors can also enjoy galleries devoted to the art of Japan, China, Korea and the Islamic world. The East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic gallery displays some truly spectacular carpets.

Contemporary design has always been at the heart of the V&A’s work and it works hard to encourage contemporary designers, acquiring their work, and providing inspiration through its displays. Many of Britain’s most successful designers have used the V&A as a source of ideas and stimulation and visitors have the opportunity to see their work alongside the historic collections which helped shape them.

Henry Cole, the V&A’s first director, declared that the Museum should be a ‘schoolroom for everyone’. The V&A today offers visitors the chance to explore more deeply by using its study rooms, guided tours, gallery activities, lectures and special events. Whether you want to enjoy the galleries independently, or get more closely involved, there are many ways to discover the delights of the Victoria and Albert Museum.


Recession in 2008

recession in 2008

In 2008 October, the government part-nationalises three leading UK banks with a 37 billion pound rescue package. It also pumps billions into the UK financial system after record stock market falls precipitated by the global “credit crunch”.

In 2008 December, the FTSE 100 ends closes down by 31.3% since the beginning of 2008, the biggest annual fall in the 24 years since the index was started.

In 2009 January, the Bank of England cuts interests rates to 1.5%, the lowest level in its 315-year history.The government announces a second package of measures to help Britain’s ailing banks, amid surging unemployment and deepening economic gloom.

In 2009 May, Furore erupts over MPs’ expenses when details about what they have been claiming are leaked to a national newspaper.

In 2009 June, European election: Governing Labour Party slumps to its lowest share of the vote – 15.7% – since World War II, and is beaten into third place. The main opposition Conservative Party comes first with 27.7%.House of Commons Speaker Michael Martin stands down after widespread criticism for his reaction to the MPs’ expenses scandal.

In 2009 November, Britain withdraws bulk of its remaining troops in southern Iraq, leaving only a small force tasked with training the Iraqi military.

Iraq inquiry chaired by former civil servant Sir John Chilcot opens. Its stated aim is to “learn the lessons” of the Iraq conflict. The UK economy comes out of recession, after figures show it grew by 0.1% in the last quarter of 2009, following six consecutive quarters of economic contraction – the longest such period since quarterly figures were first recorded in 1955.

In 2010 February, A full list of repayments MPs have been asked to make following the expenses scandal is published in a report from auditor Sir Thomas Legg.

First World War

1st wrld war

The First World War or the Great War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died, a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents’ technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The toll exacted by the First World War can be seen in Britain’s conduct of its successor. The paralysis and weakness which gripped Whitehall as Hitler’s shadow extended first through Austria, then through Czechoslovakia, had no precedent since Tudor times. The war itself was not, as the First had been, a grinding, additional question of superior force and power eventually overcoming an entrenched enemy; rather it was a miracle of luck and spirit, so badly had Britain prepared for it.

The failure to prepare for war was a dark harbinger of the next half century. It is unquestionable that the British sacrifice against Nazi Germany single-handedly (in 1940 at least) prevented the entirety of Western European civilisation falling under its spell. If no other action could be said to justify a nation’s place in the world, this alone would be enough. And yet, the war was known to be coming. In replacing a national industrial strategy with wishful thinking, the British set out their stall for the dog days of decline and fall which would follow. The lamps which Sir Edward Grey saw going out all over Europe in 1914 were now well and truly extinguished.

Second World War

second world war

The British government knew that Germany would target London in their bombing raids. If the capital was put out of action, it would severely affect the war effort and have a devastating impact on the nation’s morale.

The Blitz on London from September 1940 to May 1941 and the V1 flying bomb and V2 rocket attacks in1944 caused a massive amount of damage. It is estimated that more than 12,000 metric tons of bombs were dropped on London and nearly 30,000 civilians were killed by enemy action. The worst hit places tended to be the poorer districts, like the East End, but all Londoners were affected by German air raids to a varying degree.

The Blitz changed the landscape of the city. Many famous landmarks were hit, including Buckingham Palace, the Houses of Parliament, the Tower of London and the Imperial War Museum. Some areas, such as Stepney, were so badly damaged that they had to be almost entirely rebuilt after the war. With the arrival of large numbers of Commonwealth and overseas service personnel, London became more cosmopolitan. After 1942, by far the overwhelming presence was that of American servicemen. It was also a busy transport hub and a popular destination for troops on leave.

London was the focus for VE and VJ Day celebrations at the end of the war. Thousands of people waited to see the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace and for Churchill to appear at Whitehall. On VE Day, St Paul’s Cathedral and the National Gallery were floodlit, and there were bonfires in the city’s parks. The British government knew that Germany would target London in their bombing raids. If the capital was put out of action, it would severely affect the war effort and have a devastating impact on the nation’s morale.

The Blitz on London from September 1940 to May 1941 and the V1 flying bomb and V2 rocket attacks in 1944 caused a massive amount of damage. It is estimated that more than 12,000 metric tons of bombs were dropped on London and nearly 30,000 civilians were killed by enemy action. The worst hit places tended to be the poorer districts, like the East End, but all Londoners were affected by German air raids to a varying degree.

The Blitz changed the landscape of the city. Many famous landmarks were hit, including Buckingham Palace, the Houses of Parliament, the Tower of London and the Imperial War Museum. Some areas, such as Stepney, were so badly damaged that they had to be almost entirely rebuilt after the war. With the arrival of large numbers of Commonwealth and overseas service personnel, London became more cosmopolitan. After 1942, by far the overwhelming presence was that of American servicemen. It was also a busy transport hub and a popular destination for troops on leave.

London was the focus for VE and VJ Day celebrations at the end of the war. Thousands of people waited to see the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace and for Churchill to appear at Whitehall. On VE Day, St Paul’s Cathedral and the National Gallery were floodlit, and there were bonfires in the city’s parks.


Olympic Games and Paralympic

olympic

The London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games were a great triumph for London and the whole country. Our athletes excelled, tens of thousands of volunteers made a fantastic contribution, and the opening and closing ceremonies were widely praised. The success of the Games demonstrates that it is possible for government departments to work together and with other bodies effectively to deliver complex programmes. The government’s preparations were led by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (the Department); the Olympic Delivery Authority delivered the construction programme on time and within budget; and the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) ensured that the events themselves were so well organised. We now expect the government to build on the success of the Games by putting the lessons learned from delivering the Games to the best possible effect in delivering other major projects. In this report we make a number of observations and recommendations which are designed to ensure that this happens.

The $9.298 billion Public Sector Funding Package for the Games is set to be underspent. We welcome the Department’s commitment to reflect on what more it can do to present costs in a way that goes further and brings out those costs associated with the Games and the legacy that are not covered by the Funding Package. The notable blemish on planning for the Games was venue security, which was a sorry episode. The costs and scale of venue security were vastly underestimated before 2011, and could only be met from the Public Sector Funding Package due to underspend elsewhere. G4S then agreed a contract for providing the necessary security guards, but failed to deliver fully. Thankfully, the armed forces and police were ready and able to step in—we acknowledge their very impressive ability to do so at short notice, and the huge contribution they made to the successful security operation, which passed off without any major problems.

During the Games a large number of accredited seats went unused at events for which the public demand for tickets could not be met, and it is a shame that so few tickets for popular events were available to the UK public. For example, only 51% of tickets for the men’s 100 metres final were available to the UK public and only 47% of tickets for the track cycling. International sports bodies and media organisations wield a lot of power and it cannot be easy for individual event organisers to push back at their demands. But, learning from the experience of the London Games, the government, possibly alongside other governments and event organizers, should challenge demands for large numbers of accredited seats. It is now up to the London Legacy Development Corporation to attract investment in the Olympic Park and generate the promised returns to funders.

We are concerned that the lottery good causes do not have any clear influence over decisions about future sales, despite these decisions directly affecting how much will be available to them and when. On the wider legacy, we look to the Cabinet Office to provide strong leadership to ensure delivery of the longer term benefits, on which basis the public spending was justified, 4 including opportunities for business, tourism and increased sports participation on the back of the Games.

We are keen to see the government building on the success of the volunteering programme, but are not convinced that it is doing all it can to learn and disseminate lessons and to encourage volunteering opportunities both within sport and beyond. On the basis of a report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, we took evidence from the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, the Home Office, LOCOG, the Ministry of Defence, G4S, the London Legacy Development Corporation and the Cabinet Office on the staging of the Games and plans for delivering the legacy.

The Tower of London

tower of london

The Tower of London is one of the most famous buildings in London. It has stood guard over the city since Norman times. The first part of the Tower of London to be built was the White Tower. It was probably begun in 1078 and finished by 1100. The new tower was designed by a Norman bishop called Gandalf, who was a famous builder.

White limestone was brought from Caen in ships to build the Tower and a local stone called Kentish rag stone was brought by barge along the Medway and the Thames. When it was completed the White Tower stood 90 feet high. Its walls were 15 feet thick at the bottom and tapered to 11 feet thick at the top. The entrance was on the first floor.

About 1097 William Rufus built a stone wall around the White Tower to enclose it. For centuries the Tower of London was used to hold important prisoners. Bell Tower was built in 1190-1210. The bell at the top was rung in an emergency. Wardrobe Tower was built in 1190-1199. As its name suggests it was used to hold clothes and jewels.

The Tower of London was greatly extended by Henry III (1216-1272).The Tower of London has always been guarded by armed men. However the Yeomen Warders were founded by Henry VII in 1485.The Tower of London is, of course, famous for its many executions. Several took place during the 16th century.

In 1603 Sir Walter Raleigh was convicted of treason and sent to the Tower. He was held there for 13 years. Raleigh used the time to write a History of the World. Charles II (1660-1685) strengthened the Tower’s fortifications. Furthermore during the reign of Charles II members of the public were allowed to visit the Tower of London for the first time.

In year, 1685 the Royal Fusiliers were founded to guard the weapons in the Tower of London.

In the 19th century the Tower of London changed its function. Since the 13th century there had been a royal menagerie in the Tower. In 1835 it was moved to Regent’s Park. Then in the 1950s state documents were removed from the Tower. Also in the 1850s they ceased storing weapons in the Tower. Meanwhile building work continued. In 1843 the moat around the Tower was drained. In the mid-19th century the Waterloo Barracks and the Officer Block (now the Fusilier’s Museum) were built.

In the 1850s and 1860s a man named Anthony Salvin was employed to restore medieval buildings in the Tower of London. He restored the Beauchamp Tower, the Salt Tower, St Thomas’s Tower and Wakefield Tower. In the 1870s and 1880s restoration work continued under a man named John Taylor.

During the First World War eleven German spies were shot by firing squad in the Tower of London. Only one bomb was dropped on the Tower during that war and fortunately it fell on the moat.

During the Second World War the Tower of London was closed to the public and the crown jewels were removed to a safer location. During the war the Tower suffered bomb damage and two 19th century buildings were destroyed. Part of the Old Hospital Block was also destroyed.

Meanwhile Rudolf Hess the Deputy Fuhrer flew to Scotland in May 1941 and was imprisoned in the Tower. However only one German was actually shot in the Tower of London during World War II. He was a man named Josef Jakobs and he was executed in August 1941.Today the Tower of London is one of the main tourist attractions in London.


Monument to the great fire of London

monument oftower of london

The first Rebuilding Act, passed in 1669, stipulated that “the better to preserve the memory of this dreadful visitation”, a column of either brass or stone should be set up on Fish Street Hill, on or near the site of Farynor’s bakery, where the fire began. Christopher Wren, as surveyor-general of the King’s Works, was asked to submit a design. Wren worked with Robert Hooke on the design of the monument. It is impossible to disentangle the collaboration between Hooke and Wren, but Hooke’s drawings of possible designs for the column still exist, with Wren’s signature on them indicating his approval of the drawings rather than their authorship. It was not until 1671 that the City Council approved the design, and it was another six years before the 202 ft. column was complete. It was two more years before the inscription (which had been left to Wren — or to Wren’s choice — to decide upon) was set in place. “Commemorating — with a brazen disregard for the truth — the fact that ‘London rises again…three short years complete that which was considered the work of ages.

Hooke’s surviving drawings show that several versions of the monument were submitted for consideration: a plain obelisk, a column garnished with tongues of fire, and the fluted Doric column that was eventually chosen. The real contention came with the problem of what type of ornament to have at the top. Initially, Wren favoured a statue of a phoenix with outstretched wings rising from the ashes, but as the column neared completion he decided instead on a 15 ft. statue either of Charles II, or a sword-wielding female to represent a triumphant London; the cost of either being estimated at £1,050. Charles himself disliked the idea of his statue atop the monument and instead preferred a simple copper-gilded ball “with flames sprouting from the top”, costing a little over £325, but ultimately it was the design of a flaming gilt-bronze urn suggested by Robert Hooke that was chosen. The total cost of the monument was £13,450 11s 9d of which £11,300 was paid to the mason-contractor Joshua Marshall.

The Edinburgh-born writer James Boswell visited the Monument in 1763 to climb the 311 steps to what was then the highest viewpoint in London. Halfway up, he suffered a panic attack, but persevered and made it to the top, where he found it “horrid to be so monstrous a way up in the air, so far above London and all its spires”.

The area around the base of the column, Monument Street, has now been pedestrianized in a £790,000 street improvement scheme. The Monument closed in July 2007 for an 18-month, £4.5 million refurbishment project and re-opened in February 2009.

Between 1 and 2 October 2011, a Live Music Sculpture created especially for the Monument by British composer Samuel Bordoli was performed 18 times during the weekend. This was the first occasion that music had ever been heard inside the structure and effectively transformed Wren’s design into a gigantic reverberating musical instrument.

Westminster Abbey

westministry

Westminster Abbey a shrine was first founded here in 616 on a site then known as Thorny Island. It was said to have been miraculously consecrated after a fisherman on the River Thames saw a vision of Saint Peter.

While the existence of this shrine is uncertain, the historic Abbey was built by Edward the Confessor between 1045-1050 and was consecrated on December 28, 1065. Its construction originated in Edward’s failure to keep a vow to go on a pilgrimage; the Pope suggested that he redeem himself by building an Abbey.

The original Abbey, in the Romanesque style that is called “Norman” in England, was built to house Benedictine monks. It was rebuilt in the Gothic style between 1245-1517. The first phase of the rebuilding was organised by Henry III, in Gothic style, as a shrine to honour Edward the Confessor and as a suitably regal setting for Henry’s own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England.

The work was largely finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of King Richard II. Henry VII added a Perpendicular style chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary in 1503 (known as the Henry VII Lady Chapel). It is a Gothic monastery church in London that is the traditional place of coronation and burial for English monarchs. Neither a cathedral nor a parish church, Westminster Abbey is a place of worship owned by the royal family.

Located next to the Houses of Parliament in the heart of London, Westminster Abbey is a must-see for any London visitor. With its oldest parts dating to the year 1050, the Abbey contains some of the most glorious medieval architecture in London. Because of its royal connections, it was spared King Henry VIII’s general assault on monastic buildings during the Reformation.

The interior is a veritable museum of English history. Among many highlights are the medieval coronation throne; Poet’s Corner with its memorials to William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, and other giants of literature; and the tombs of Queen Elizabeth I, “Bloody” Queen Mary, explorer David Livingstone and naturalist Charles Darwin.

It suffered damage during the turbulent 1640s, when it was attacked by Puritan iconoclasts, but was again protected by its close ties to the state during the Commonwealth period. Oliver Cromwell was given an elaborate funeral there in 1658, only to be disinterred in January 1661 and posthumously hanged from a nearby gibbet.

The Abbey was restored to the Benedictines under Queen Mary, but they were again ejected under Queen Elizabeth I in 1559. In 1579, Elizabeth re-established Westminster as a “royal peculiar” – a church responsible directly to the sovereign, rather than to a diocesan bishop – and made it the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, (i.e. a church with an attached chapter of canons, headed by a dean).

The abbey’s two western towers were built between 1722 and 1745 by Sir Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawks moor, constructed from Portland stone to an early example of a Gothic Revival design. Further rebuilding and restoration occurred in the 19th century under Sir George Gilbert Scott.

The New English Bible was also put together here in the 20th century. Closer to our own time, in 1998 ten 20th-century Christian martyrs including Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Oscar Romero were immortalized in stone statues over the Great West Door.

Channel tunnel opened in 1994

channeltunnel opened

 

In a ceremony presided over by England’s Queen Elizabeth II and French President Francois Mitterand, a rail tunnel under the English Channel was officially opened, connecting Britain and the European mainland for the first time since the Ice Age.

The channel tunnel, or “Chunnel,” connects Folkstone, England, with Sangatte, France, 31 miles away. The Chunnel cut travel time between England and France to a swift 35 minutes and eventually between London and Paristo two-and-a-half hours.

As the world’s longest undersea tunnel, the Chunnel runs under water for 23 miles, with an average depth of 150 feet below the seabed. Each day, about 30,000 people, 6,000 cars and 3,500 trucks journey through the Chunnel on passenger, shuttle and freight trains.

Millions of tons of earth were moved to build the two rail tunnels–one for northbound and one for southbound traffic–and one service tunnel. Fifteen thousand people were employed at the peak of construction. Ten people were killed during construction.

Napoleon’s engineer, Albert Mathieu, planned the first tunnel under the English Channel in 1802, envisioning an underground passage with ventilation chimneys that would stretch above the waves. In 1880, the first real attempt was made by Colonel Beaumont, who bore a tunnel more than a mile long before abandoning the project. Other efforts followed in the 20th century, but none on the scale of the tunnels begun in June 1988.

The Chunnel’s $16 billion cost was roughly twice the original estimate, and completion was a year behind schedule. One year into service, Eurotunnel announced a huge loss, one of the biggest in United Kingdom corporate history at the time. A scheme in which banks agreed to swap billions of pounds worth of loans for shares saved the tunnel from going under and it showed its first net profit in 1999.

Freight traffic was suspended for six months after a fire broke out on a lorry in the tunnel in November 1996. Nobody was seriously hurt in the incident.

In 1996, the American Society of Civil Engineers identified the tunnel as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World.

Top 10 corporates that changed the world

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Top 10 Treasures of Europe

Treasures Of Europe

Treasures of Europe  are

Street art (Berlin)

streetart

The Berlin Wall was the largest canvas in the world. This wall was open to everyone there were no restrictions on what artists could put on the wall.  The Berlin Wall was constructed in 1961 to separate Germany and Berlin during the Cold War. The wall was on the “death strip”. The term ‘street art’ is done, over,” said Mr. von Lanzenauer, pointing at Stefan Strumbel’s neon-kitsch cuckoo clocks and prints on the gallery’s walls. “I call this contemporary art. Street is just a medium.”

This is the place for people to express their opinions, especially on their preferences and dislikes from all the countries. In the 1980s, the wall was reconstructed and made 14 feet tall a place where tourists would go and admire the artwork. The West Berlin side of the wall had artwork completely covering the wall, while the East Berlin side was kept blank.

Over the past 30 years since the collection of artwork was started, much of the controversial artwork has been removed from the wall. Almost all of the wall has been removed and it only exists in places such as Potsdamer Platz, Mühlenstrasse, and Bernauer Strasse. Since the 1990s, Painting had been prohibited on the east side of the wall during the Cold War, so not a lot of new art has been added

Chocolate (Brussels)

choclates

Europe served half of the chocolates to the world and Belgium shares the income. While Brussels, the country’s capital, is home to hundreds of chocolatiers, what makes a visit imperative, at least from a chocophile’s perspective, is the rich heritage of artisanal chocolate-makers. This have their standard qualities and different flavours.

They sourcing top-quality ingredients and eschewing preservatives and unnatural additives of the dozens of caramel, marzipan, mousse, ganache and cream-filled bonbons that are stacked in neat rows down a long central counter, along with glass bowls of hand-rolled truffles, flaked with almonds and dusted in powdered sugar.

Brussels will be as if you have discovered secret treasures of the chocolate capital.

Silk (Florence)

silk

In the small lane of San Frediano district of Florence, the sole remaining artisan silk workshop in the city. In 1786 after the floods and wars they started the small silk factory.

The art of silk-making in Florence flourished in the Renaissance, when noble families amassed fortunes and fame by producing exquisite silks. That tradition endures at Antico Setificio Fiorentino, where silks are woven by hand on antique looms using Renaissance patterns.

Many kinds of productions are made with much varieties and designs. Making

Mr. Bonas said, “To make these kinds of fabric, we cannot use the modern machines,” pulling out a roll of sumptuous blue embroidered silk velvet made with 350,000 stitches per meter. And because the small factory employs only 20 artisans, production is predictably limited and costly. Decorative pillows are adorned with hand-woven trims. And, on a table, a basket is filled with sachets made of Ermisino, a shimmering silk taffeta that dates back 500years

Scent (Istanbul)

scent

Functioning of factory passages and taste buds are essential for appreciating the exotic scents and sweets stacked in glass cases and on black lacquer shelves around this boutique on the European side of the city, which sits astride two continents. Don’t visit Lokum Istanbul if you have a cold. Scents contain the Turkish essences like rose, fig, tea and mimosa.

Scents transforms some of those same ingredients like rose, fig and others lemon, pistachio, walnut. Scents with a hard candy in flavors like rose, fig, bergamot and cinnamon.

Tiles (Lisbon)

tiles

In Lisbon, Thousands of specimens, from the 15th century to the 1930s, fill Solar a nearly 60-year-old Lisbon tile specialist and antique dealer. And all across Portugal, the typically blue designs of azulejos, ceramic tiles are spread across churches, monasteries, castles, palaces, university halls, parks, train stations, hotel lobbies and apartment facades. The result is an embellished land of Christian saints, biblical episodes, Portuguese kings, historical glories, pastoral idylls, aristocrats at leisure, landscapes, seascapes, floral designs and, above all, geometric motifs.

Stacks of tiles and hanging panels embody historical styles such as Hispano-Moorish, Renaissance, Baroque, neo-Classical, Art Nouveau and Art Deco. Blue and white are the star colours, though yellow, green, brown and other hues sometimes play supporting roles.

A dazzling neo-Moorish geometric pattern explodes in a kaleidoscope of blue, white, emerald and caramel shapes across four tiles. Many collections of tiles were in Lisbon.

Hats (London)

hats

In the tiny lane the Mrs Trevor-Morgan was surrounded by hats of all shapes (wide-brimmed, pillbox, beret, fascinators), in materials like silk taffeta, wool hound’s-tooth, velour felt, straw and lace. Embellishments included peacock or spiky feathers, silk flowers or sheer veils, bows or curls.

She who has designed some 65 hats for Queen Elizabeth over the last decade and creates bespoke hats for all occasions. She recommends clients make a one-hour appointment and bring along the outfit for a particular event so she can match the color. Here the hats are so trendy and fashionable.

Everyone want to wear a hat, it automatically makes you more interesting and a hat can completely change the personality of the wearer.

Guitars (Madrid)

guitars

Madrid’s storied guitar makers’ workshops can feel like stepping into the past while crossing them. Curly wood shavings, from the palest pine to ebony, cascade to the floor as artisans hone a few humble planks into acoustic works of art. It’s painstaking work all done by hand with classical guitar models and the methods of making them changing little over the last century. The monthly production of even the most seasoned craftsmen typically maxes out at two instruments per month.

The finished products will someday go out the door, gleaming with varnish and polished metal fittings, to seduce audiences from stages around the globe. The door is usually open at Mariano Conde’s, a tiny two-level workshop near the Teatro Realm. Guitar’s colourful mix of woods is less an aesthetic choice than a science. Each element of the instrument’s anatomy has specific physical and acoustic demands, and its maker knows which woods can accomplish each function.

Umbrellas (Paris)

umbrellas

Here a cluster of handmade umbrellas be found. Using both modern and centuries-old machines and tools, the shop’s wares. Fine and rare woods form the shafts. Handles range from sewn leather to engraved silver to carved wood inlaid with horn or jewels. Linen, cotton or silk all treated to be impermeable to water and ultraviolet rays are cut and sewn into the canopies, which might be adorned with lace, ribbon, embroidery or even ostrich feathers. The umbrellas with slim, straight beech wood stem and handle allow for easy twirling.

Toys (Prague)

 

toys

This is to impress the children by the traditional toysThe inside seems less like a toy store and more like a toy closet: a single small room overstuffed with beautiful, long-haired Hamiro and boxes of Merkur metal construction. Inside one display case is an impressively realistic layout of Merkur’s O-scale model trains, on top of which are unusual stuffed animals, like the three-foot-high giraffe and packs of simple wooden toys with wheels and pull strings. Everything seems quirky and fun, and often remarkably affordable.

More important, almost everything has a real connection to the Czech lands. When you start playing with the old-fashioned wind-up metal toys, you will probably fall in love with the tiny version of the country’s classic Zetor tractor, complete with working forward and reverse gears as well as optional attachable hay wagons, cisterns, seeders and tillers. In terms of entertainment, such historic toys probably don’t have much on Candy Crush Saga.

Coffee Sets (Sarajevo)

coffee

To know Sarajevo, you must understand the importance of coffee. Making traditional coffee introduced here soon after the Ottoman Grounds are roasted, before adding boiling water. When the froth foams to the top, the rich brew is poured into a small, handle less china cup known as a fildzan which sits in a copper sheath, or zarf. The world grinds to a halt. Cigarettes are lit. Conversations take hushed tones.

But a trained ear can make out craftsmen coaxing copper into vessels used for preparing and drinking Sarajevo’s beloved beverage. They removes the lead and sanitizes the dzezva before applying a stove-ready tin lining. For others, he’ll apply a coat of tin outside and in, and engrave through to the under layer of copper in geometric patterns.

A coffee must take at least half an hour just to sit and enjoy.

 

National libraries of Europe

libraries

The libraries are an impressive representation of European cultural heritage throughout the centuries with short descriptions have been added to provide essential information. This treasures exhibited in this online exhibition come from national libraries from all over Europe, going back as far as the 8th century. These libraries have selected some of the most stunning artefacts in their collections, like rare and precious books, illuminated manuscripts, bookbinding’s, drawings, prints and decorated papers.

Top 10 shopping malls in Europe

Top 10 shopping malls in Europe

Shopping malls have become a lot more than just shopping venues. It has become a modern version of the park as people flock to malls just to hang out and have fun. Anything and everything that you need can be found right in the malls.

That is why some companies have taken the time and money to develop huge tracts of land into modern shopping centers. Some may require more than a day just to tour the entire place. Here now is a list of the top 10 biggest malls in the world in terms of gross space available for leasing.

MEGA Belaya Dacha

Located: Moscow, Russia

Opened: 2006

Area: 214,000 sq. Meter

Shops: over 330

MEGA The Family Shopping Centre is a chain of shopping centres in Russia owned and operated by IKEA.Each MEGA brings together in one place over 150 tenants offering goods and services. Its anchor tenants include the IKEA store, a hypermarket and a DIY store.

 

mega

 

Puerto Venecia

Located: Zaragoza, Spain

Opened: 2007

Area: 207,000 sq. meter

El Parque Comercial Puerto Venecia está situado en la ciudad de Zaragoza (España), en el barrio de La Paz (distrito de Torrero-La Paz). En 2010 obtuvo una mención en la categoría de «Nuevas fórmulas de comercio integrado» en los premios de la Asociación Española de Centros Comerciales.Tiene una superficie bruta alquilable de 83 000 m², que aumentó el 4 de octubre de 2012 hasta los 206 000 m².

Cuenta con más de 10 000 plazas de aparcamiento[actualizar] así como otros servicios y accesos desde el centro de la ciudad y regiones colindantes. Recibe unas 5 millones de visitas anuales[actualizar], y su horario de apertura es de 10h a 22h.

 

puerto

 

Shopping centre sud

Located: Wien, Austria

Opened: 1976

Area: 190,000 sq. Meter

Shops: 330

The Shopping City Süd (SCS) is a shopping centre located in Vösendorf and Wiener Neudorf, south of Vienna, Austria.

With a leasable area of 173,000 square metres, it is the biggest shopping mall in Austria. It contains over 330 shops and has around 4,500 employees.

In December 2007, the SCS was sold for €607 million to French real estate company Unibail-Rodamco, which also owns the Donauzentrum.

 

shoppinsud

 

Westfield Stratford city

Located: London, UK

Opened: 2011

Area: 176,000 sq. Meter

Shops: over 250

Westfield Stratford City  is a shopping centre in Stratford, London. The centre opened on 13 September 2011. With a total retail floor area of 1,883,700 square feet (175,000 m2), it is one of the largest urban shopping centres in Europe. It is the third-largest shopping centre in the United Kingdom by retail space behind the MetroCentre and the Trafford Centre. Taking the surrounding shopping area into account, it is the largest urban shopping centre in the European Union in terms of size.

 

westfield stratford city

 

MEGA Family Shopping Centre – Khimki – Moscow Oblast

Located: Moscow, Russia

Opened: 2004

Area: 175,000 sq. Meter

Shops: Over 250

MEGA The Family Shopping Centre is a chain of shopping centres in Russia owned and operated by IKEA.Each MEGA brings together in one place over 150 tenants offering goods and services. Its anchor tenants include the IKEA store, a hypermarket and a DIY store.

At the moment there are 14 MEGA centres in Russia: 3 in Moscow, 2 in Saint Petersburg, and 1 each in Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Ekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Rostov-on-Don, Adygea (near Krasnodar), Samara, Ufa, and Omsk. MEGA Belaya Dacha in Belaya Dacha, Kotelniki, Moscow oblast is the second largest shopping mall in Russia, the largest outside of Moscow and one of the largest in Europe.

 

MEGA Family Shopping Centre – Khimki – Moscow Oblast

 

 

Metro centre

Located: Newcastle, UK

Opened: 1986

Area: 174,000sq.m

Shops: 340 shops

The Intu Metrocentre, formerly MetroCentre and known on road signs as Metro Centre, is a shopping centre in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, England.

Located in Dunston, Gateshead, on a former industrial site near to the River Tyne, the Metrocentre opened in stages, with the first phase opening on 28 April 1986 and the official opening on 14 October 1986. It has more than 340 shops occupying 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of retail floor space, making it the largest shopping and leisure centre in the UK Additional retail space is available in the adjoining Metro Retail Park and MetrOasis.

metrocenter

Marineda city

Located: Lacoruria, Spain

Opened: 2011

Area: 170,000 sq. meter

Marineda City can get very busy especially at the weekends so is best enjoyed during the week. It’s a great place to combine shopping with a spot of leisure with a choice of bowling,mini golf,cinemas,a children’s play area,an ice rink and karting not to mention the eating establishments and bars

Marineda city

Golden Babylon Rostokino

Located: Moscow, Russia

Opened: 2009

Area: 169,000sq.meter

Shops: 400 stores

With a total lettable area of some 168,000 m² Golden Babylon Rostokino is one of Europe’s largest shopping malls. Two metro stations are within a 15 minute walk and various bus and tram stops are situated directly in front of the premises. A shuttle bus service transports the customers between the shopping centre and four metro stations.

 

Golden Babylon Rostokino

Mega Teplyi Stan

Located: Moscow, Russia

Opened: 2002

Area: 155,000

It is a new concept for a shopping center. It offers shopping, leisure and comfort for the whole family.MEGA aims to set new standards in shopping for all visitors. MEGA wins the first place in trade sector and is the largest operator in the market, acclaimed as the best shopping center.

Mega Teplyi Stan

The Trafford Centre

Located: Manchester, UK

Opened: 1998

Area: 153,000sq.meter

The Trafford Centre is a large indoor shopping centre and leisure complex in Dumplington, Greater Manchester, England. Situated in the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford, the centre is situated close to the Trafford Park industrial estate and lies approximately five miles west of Manchester city centre. The Trafford Centre opened in 1998 and is the second largest shopping centre in the United Kingdom by retail size. It was developed by the Peel Group and is currently owned by Intu Properties following a £1.65 billion sale in 2011 – the largest single property acquisition in British history.As of 2016, the centre has a market value of £1.9 billion.

 The Trafford Centre

Top 10 satellites orbiting around the world

Top 10 satellites orbiting around the world

Today, a satellite was involved in your life. Whether you checked a weather report, watched SportsCenter or looked for your mom’s house on Google Maps, you did something that would have been impossible without an automated spacecraft orbiting hundreds of miles above your head. But how many of these satellites do you know by name? Here are the top ten you need to know, because they make modern life possible.

Hubble space technologies

Launched: 1990

hubble

Opening our eyes to the wonders of our ‘planetary’, Hubble brought the beauty and mystery of space by the photos. It has rich modern astronomy by being an efficient tool for new discoveries. Objective to visible the universe and to look the entire space with cameras.

HST is one of the greatest scientific projects having 2.4 m-diameter space telescope optimised to observe from the ultraviolet to the infrared, collaborated between ESA and NASA. Hubble was deployed by the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31) into a circular orbit 575 km above the ground, inclined at 28.5° to the equator. The time taken for one orbit is between 96 and 97 minutes. Hubble have received some new science instruments on1997. Hubble has resumed its scientific observations, with expanded science capabilities and an extended life.

 

GPS IIR-1

Launched: 1997

GPS IIR-11

Without this there won’t be the Geocaching! The U.S. government’s NAVSTAR program brought global positioning abilities first to the military, then to the general public. It takes a constellation of these things for the system to work the IIR-1 is the one among them. The GPS satellite and payload shroud survived intact until impacting the ground .The GPS satellite took charge, covered and handled perfect until impacting the ground.

 

The International Space Station (ISS)

Launched: 1998

iss

ISS is a space station, or an artificial satellite suited for maintaining and monitoring the spacecraft’s, in low Earth orbit. The ISS is now the largest artificial body in orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and other fields. It completes 15.54 orbits per day.

KH-13

Launched: 1999

Kh13

OOPS! A hidden information about the satellite. This U.S. spy satellite is so secret, even the name is probably wrong the government started giving them random names after people caught onto to the KH numbering system.

 

TERRA

Launched: 1999

terra

A Chief of the Terra Earth Observing System EOS which is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in a Sun-synchronous orbit around the Earth. It was placed into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705km.

Terra undertaken the five remote sensors designed to monitor to update the state of Earth’s environment and ongoing changes in its climate system.

  • ASTER(Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer)
  • CERES(Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System)
  • MISR(Multi-angle Imaging Spectro Radiometer)
  • MODIS(Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro Radiometer)
  • MOPITT(Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere)

Also Data from the satellite helps scientists better to census the spread of pollution around the globe. It gives entirely the updated and new data.

 

Landsat 7

Launched: 1999

landsat

The satellite for refreshing the global archives of satellite photos, providing up-to-date and cloud-free images. Has the capacity to collect and transmit up to 532 images per day a polar sun-synchronous orbit, meaning it scans across the entire earth’s surface. The data collected and distributed, managed and operated by the USGS. Landsat 7 has a solid state memory of 378 gigabits. The main instrument on board Landsat 7 is the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus.

 

GOES 12

Launched: 2001

goes

An American weather satellite, in April 2010 it is the standby orbit, position providing coverage of the east coast of the United States. GOES 12 was used instead in order to test its Solar X-ray Imager. The Solar X-ray Imager failed in April 2006.

From its high-altitude geosynchronous orbit, GOES-12 keeps a constant look on weather conditions in most of North America.

 

NOAA-17

Launched: 2002

noaa

A Weather forecasting satellite operated by NOAA. The NOAA satellites have asynchronous orbits, 824 km above the Earth, orbiting every 101 minutes. Spinning around the globe to spot developing weather patterns that affect billions of people. Satellite was retired in 2013 It hosted the AMSU, AVHRR and High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HRIS) instruments.

 

Galaxy 14

Launched: 2005

galaxy14-satelite

 

As one of the geostationary satellites. The Galaxy series is a family of satellites have updating many satellites. This communications relay carries digital TV signals for much of the east coast, including ESPN, Lifetime, Sci-Fi, CNN, A&E and personal favourite, the History Channel.

 

SES1

Launched: 2010

ses1

SES-1 is a geostationary communications satellite designed to replace two ageing spacecraft serving North America which is operated by SES World Skies.

It has a design life of fifteen years, however it was launched with enough fuel to operate for at least sixteen if its systems are still functional.